This survey provides an in-depth study of the relationship of art and power in what has been called the "Europe of the Dictators", between 1930 and 1945 - published as the catalogue for a major exhibition at the Hayward Gallery which opened in late 1995. In Hitler's Germany, Stalin's USSR and Mussolini's Italy, art was used to reinforce the strength of the political rulers, to shape and influence, to celebrate and demonstrate the seductive nature of power. But despite the ambitious architectural projects and public monuments, the grand portraits and gigantic sculptures, artistic freedom was restricted under these regimes. Art movements that had flourished pre-1930 were suppressed, and efforts were channelled into new, populist forms that expressed the ideals of the state. With over 450 illustrated examples, ranging from painting and sculpture to large-scale architecture, from cinema and photography to literature, this volume examines in essays, by some of today's leading art historians, the often uneasy relationship between art and power. Including biographies of all the artists and architects, an illustrated chronology, and extracts from contemporary reviews and journals, this text should be a valuable resource for students and art historians, and an important study for anyone interested in the history of the period. An afterword is included by Neal ascherson.